Expression Profiling of Human Tumors

Medical
Expression Profiling of Human Tumors PDF Author: Marc Ladanyi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592593860
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 399

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Book Description
A comprehensive review of the use of global gene expression profiling to understand human tumors. The authors focus on the analysis of human tissue samples for a variety of cancers, including breast, colorectal, lung, renal, ovarian, bone, and brain tumors, among others. A primer on the technology and its novel analytical methods. Contains over 40 color images. Explains both the theory and practice of comprehensive gene expression profiling. Timely and topical, Expression Profiling of Human Tumors: Diagnostic and Research Applications offers every oncologist, pathologists, and cancer surgeons an essential introduction to the most promising new high-throughput investigative approaches in molecular biology-technology that is already dramatically reshaping the future of cancer research, diagnostic pathology, and clinical oncology.

Expression Profiling of Human Tumors

Expression Profiling of Human Tumors PDF Author: Marc Ladanyi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1592593860
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 399

View

Book Description
A comprehensive review of the use of global gene expression profiling to understand human tumors. The authors focus on the analysis of human tissue samples for a variety of cancers, including breast, colorectal, lung, renal, ovarian, bone, and brain tumors, among others. A primer on the technology and its novel analytical methods. Contains over 40 color images. Explains both the theory and practice of comprehensive gene expression profiling. Timely and topical, Expression Profiling of Human Tumors: Diagnostic and Research Applications offers every oncologist, pathologists, and cancer surgeons an essential introduction to the most promising new high-throughput investigative approaches in molecular biology-technology that is already dramatically reshaping the future of cancer research, diagnostic pathology, and clinical oncology.

Expression Profiling of Human Tumors

Expression Profiling of Human Tumors PDF Author: Marc Ladanyi
Publisher: Humana
ISBN: 9781588291226
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 399

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Book Description
A comprehensive review of the use of global gene expression profiling to understand human tumors. The authors focus on the analysis of human tissue samples for a variety of cancers, including breast, colorectal, lung, renal, ovarian, bone, and brain tumors, among others. A primer on the technology and its novel analytical methods. Contains over 40 color images. Explains both the theory and practice of comprehensive gene expression profiling. Timely and topical, Expression Profiling of Human Tumors: Diagnostic and Research Applications offers every oncologist, pathologists, and cancer surgeons an essential introduction to the most promising new high-throughput investigative approaches in molecular biology-technology that is already dramatically reshaping the future of cancer research, diagnostic pathology, and clinical oncology.

Gene Expression Profiling in Cancer

Gene Expression Profiling in Cancer PDF Author: Dimitrios Vlachakis
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
ISBN: 1838801758
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 78

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Book Description
The contribution of modern-day genetics in designing efficient gene expression profiles for cancer is immense. The progress of technology and science in recent years provides the opportunity for discovery and application of new techniques for treating various diseases that affect humanity. Methods for finding and analyzing the profile of gene expression of infected cells give scientists the ability to develop more targeted and effective treatments, especially for diseases such as cancer. The development of gene expression profiling is one of the most important achievements in cancer genetics in our time. It is essentially the driving force behind personalized and precision medicine. This book highlights recent developments, applications, and breakthroughs in the field of gene expression profiling in cancer.

Impact of Gene Expression Profiling Tests on Breast Cancer Outcomes

Impact of Gene Expression Profiling Tests on Breast Cancer Outcomes PDF Author: Luigi Marchionni
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 1437911048
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 221

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Book Description
Assesses the evidence that three marketed gene expression-based assays improve prognostic accuracy, treatment choice, and health outcomes in women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Three gene expression assays were evaluated; Oncotype DX¿, MammaPrint® and the Breast Cancer Profiling (BCP or H/I ratio) test, and for gene expression signatures underlying the assays. They sought evidence on: analytic performance of tests; clinical validity; clinical utility; harms; and impact on clinical decision making and health care costs. Conclusions: Oncotype DX is furthest along the validation pathway, with retrospective evidence that it predicts distant spread and chemotherapy benefit to a clinically relevant extent over standard predictors. Illus.

Gene Expression Profiling for Predicting Outcomes in Stage II Colon Cancer

Gene Expression Profiling for Predicting Outcomes in Stage II Colon Cancer PDF Author: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services
Publisher: Createspace Independent Pub
ISBN: 9781483944340
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 48

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Book Description
Colon cancer is a common malignancy affecting both women and men. In 2012, it is expected to be the fourth most commonly diagnosed cancer (after prostate, breast, and lung cancer) with an estimated 103,170 new cases and, combined with rectal cancer, is the second most common cause of cancer deaths (after lung cancer) with 51,690 deaths. The most important prognostic factor for colon cancer is stage at diagnosis. About 40 percent of patients with colon cancer are initially diagnosed with stage I disease (these localized tumors do not invade through the muscularis propria). Stage I disease has a 5-year survival rate of over 95 percent. Five-year survival rates for patients diagnosed with stage II disease are between 58 and 83 percent. Stage II colon cancer is characterized by full-thickness tumor invasion of the bowel wall and the absence of lymph node and distant metastases. Stage II disease is now subdivided into IIA (T3 tumors that invade through the muscularis propria into the pericolorectal tissues), IIB (T4a tumors that directly penetrate to the surface of the visceral peritoneum), and IIC (T4b tumors where tumor directly invades or is adherent to other organs or structures). The relative 5-year survival rate for stage II T4a tumors is higher than for T4b lesions. Stages III and IV have a worse prognosis. A number of negative prognostic factors, that is, factors associated with increased risk of recurrence, have been identified in stage II disease including T4 tumors (which tend to be large); obstruction or bowel perforation at initial diagnosis; an inadequately low number of assessed lymph nodes from surgery (12 or fewer); poorly differentiated histology, vascular, lymphatic, and perineural invasion; a high preoperative level of carcinoembryonic antigen; and the presence of indeterminate or positive resection margins. Gene expression profiles (GEPs), also known as gene expression patterns or signatures, measure the activity of “expression” of multiple genes using a single sample. Gene expression results from DNA transcription into messenger RNA (mRNA); mRNA then serves as the template for protein synthesis. Gene expression is determined by analyzing RNA in the sample, generally using either reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction or DNA microarrays. GEP tests use defined protocols to evaluate the specimens to be analyzed: preparing the RNA samples, copying into DNA, normalizing the raw expression measurements, and computing summary results (summary indices). Data from a GEP test can provide information about a cell's type, its current state of activity, and its local environment. This Brief will focus on the use of GEP tests for both prognostic and predictive outcomes. For the purposes of this Technical Brief, prognostic outcomes relate to disease prognosis such as recurrence of tumor or survival. The prognostic outcome often assesses disease recurrence over time (usually over 3 to 5 years) and is generally measured by disease-free survival. In contrast, use of GEP assays for predictive outcomes is different. This use correlates the GEP result with benefit (reduced recurrence rate and improved survival) from adjuvant chemotherapy. Predictive assays are especially important in that their use could result in improved survival.

Gene Expression Profiling in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Gene Expression Profiling in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer PDF Author: Chi-Leung David Lam
Publisher: Open Dissertation Press
ISBN: 9781374666030
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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Book Description
This dissertation, "Gene Expression Profiling in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer" by Chi-leung, David, Lam, 林志良, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled Gene Expression Profiling in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Submitted by LAM Chi Leung, David for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Hong Kong in July 2007 Lung cancer is the worldwide leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality and Hong Kong is no exception. In some Asian countries/regions including Hong Kong, there is an increasing trend of female, non-smokers and adenocarcinomas among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Surgical resection for early stage NSCLC remains as the only curative treatment while modern chemoirradiation improves the survival of advanced stage NSCLC patients only marginally. In recent years, molecular targeted therapy has become the focus of clinical trials for advanced stage NSCLC, with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) being one promising therapeutic agent. Clinical characteristics such as female, non-smoker, tumor with activating EGFR gene mutations, adenocarcinoma histology and Asian origin are independent predictors of clinical response to EGFR-TKI. Hong Kong provides an appropriate context for studying the pathogenesis and 1chemotherapeutics in Chinese female non-smokers with lung cancer. The hypotheses being tested were that there is differential gene expression associated with different clinical phenotypes i.e. gender, smoking habits, and EGFR gene mutation status in NSCLC from local Chinese patients. To test these, the gene expression profiles of resected primary lung tumors, normal lung tissues, lung cancer cell lines and normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBECs), were analyzed. First, four new lung adenocarcinomas cell lines (HKULC 1 - 4), two from female non-smokers and two from male smokers, were established from local Chinese. They were characterized with morphological and immunohistochemical studies, growth kinetics, and gene expression profiling with microarrays. Differentially expressed genes related to the regulation of cellular proliferation and to EGFR gene exon 18 - 21 mutations were identified. These new cell lines provide tools for future research in lung cancer and for comparisons with research findings from other ethnic groups. Second, gene expression profiling with microarrays was performed for 49 lung adenocarcinomas and 9 normal lung tissues collected from local Chinese. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed stable clusters of lung adenocarcinomas versus normal lung tissues, female non-smokers and tumors bearing EGFR gene mutation at exons 18 - 21. Differential gene expression and molecular classifiers were identified and correlated clinical characteristics. The results were validated with independent test data sets from published microarray data on NSCLC. These gene expression profiling data on lung adenocarcinomas, female non-smokers and EGFR gene mutation status provide 2information for candidate gene selection for further research on lung cancer in Chinese female non-smokers. Third, significant differences were found in the expression levels of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes, α6 and β3, between tumors arising from smokers and non-smokers, adjusted for the effects of gender. Gene expression signatures were found associated with high nAChR α6β3 gene expression. Reversible elevations of the expression levels of nAChR α1, α5 and α7 subunit genes were found in

The Application of Gene Expression Profiling to Clinical Breast Cancer Research

The Application of Gene Expression Profiling to Clinical Breast Cancer Research PDF Author: Sherene Loi
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
ISBN: 9783838329734
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 280

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Book Description
The book has three main results parts. Chapter 3 illustrates the first independent validation study of a 70-gene signature developed from gene expression profiling for use in breast cancer prognosis and demonstration of its ability to add independent prognostic information to the clinical prognostic factors currently used. The successful validation of this study preceded the design and implementation of a world-wide randomized clinical trial evaluating the gene signature's clinical utility. This trial has commenced and is currently recruiting in Europe. Chapter 4 describes the finding that proliferation-related genes can predict clinical outcome consistently in breast cancer and many gene signatures developed for predicting breast cancer prognosis derive a significant proportion of their prognostic power from these genes. Finally, chapter 5 describes the use of proliferation-related genes to define two distinct prognostic molecular subgroups within estrogen receptor positive breast cancers.

Advances in Cancer Research

Advances in Cancer Research PDF Author: George F. Vande Woude
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080488233
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description
The Advances in Cancer Research series provides invaluable information on the exciting and fast-moving field of cancer research. This volume presents outstanding and original reviews on a variety of topics, including Mdm2 - a regulator of cell growth and death; the systematic progression of human cancer; seizing of T-cells by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type II; host cell dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes; and gene expression profiling of renal cell carcinoma and its implications in diagnosis prognosis and therapeutics. Provides invaluable information on the exciting and fast-moving field of cancer research. Presents outstanding and original reviews on a variety of topics, including Mdm2 - a regulator of cell growth and death; the systematic progression of human cancer; seizing of T-cells by human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type II; host cell dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes; and gene expression profiling of renal cell carcinoma and its implications in diagnosis prognosis and therapeutics

Systems-level Analysis of Airway Biology

Systems-level Analysis of Airway Biology PDF Author: Shinichiro Wachi
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 192

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Book Description


Tyrosine Kinase Gene Expression Profiling in Prostate Cancer

Tyrosine Kinase Gene Expression Profiling in Prostate Cancer PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 20

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Book Description
The expression pattern of protein tyrosine kinase (tk) genes are often found altered in prostate cancer tissues. We developed a cDNA micro-array-based screening system to measure the expression levels of tk genes. The hardware for preparation of cDNA micro-arrays and basic protocols for hybridization were developed in year 1. In the year 2, we finished cDNA synthesis from prostate cancer cell lines and frozen tissue specimens. We optimized protocols for PCP amplification and cloning and added additional targets to our micro-arrays. Using well-characterized prostate cancer cell lines, the system delivered reproducible results during cell transformation and progression towards a more malignant phenotype. Comparing the absolute expression levels from oDNA microarrays with data from Northern blot analyses suggested that our initial approach using mixed-based oligonucleotide primers led to lowered representation of highly abundant transcripts. Furthermore, the mixed base oligonucleotide primers us%d in the initial cloning experiments lead to some level of unspecific amplification limiting the assay sensitivity. Problems related to primer specificity were addressed with a new primer design based on the nucleotide sequences of known genes. Furthermore, we developed a 2-step in vitro DNA amplification scheme for unbiased quantitation of tk gene expression levels in small samples.