Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Technology & Engineering
Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities PDF Author: Robert Noyes
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815518455
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 471

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Book Description
One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities PDF Author: Robert Noyes
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815518455
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 471

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Book Description
One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities PDF Author: Robert Noyes
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0080946194
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 474

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Book Description
One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup

Nuclear Waste Cleanup PDF Author: United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science, Space, and Technology (2011- ). Subcommittee on Energy
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Radioactive waste sites
Languages : en
Pages : 0

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Nuclear Waste Disposal

Nuclear Waste Disposal PDF Author: Warren S. Melfort
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781590338506
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 162

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Book Description
The disposal of nuclear waste is becoming a major concern. Many nuclear power plants around the world are nearing the end of their operating lives. This is particularly true in the United States where most nuclear power plants are approaching the end of the operational time period allowed in their licenses. The disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plants and nuclear missiles is as politically intense an issue as the plants and missiles themselves. Yet the three issues have remained curiously separate in spite of their close physical ties. Few debates on nuclear power or nuclear weapons discuss the problems of waste disposal should the power plant or missile be decommissioned. Few debates on nuclear waste disposal discuss the opportunities to close nuclear power plants or get rid of nuclear weapons a disposal site would afford. Nuclear waste can be generally classified a either "low level" radioactive waste or "high level" radioactive waste. Low level nuclear waste usually includes material used to handle the highly radioactive parts of nuclear reactors (i.e. cooling water pipes and radiation suits) and waste from medical procedures involving radioactive treatments or x-rays. Low level waste is comparatively easy to dispose of. The level of radioactivity and the half life of the radioactive isotopes in low level waste is relatively small. Storing the waste for a period of 10 to 50 years will allow most of the radioactive isotopes in low level waste to decay, at which point the waste can be disposed of as normal refuse. High level radioactive waste is generally material from the core of the nuclear reactor or nuclear weapon. This waste includes uranium, plutonium, and other highly radioactive elements made during fission. Most of the radioactive isotopes in high level waste emit large amounts of radiation and have extremely long half-lives (some longer than 100,000 years) creating long time periods before the waste will settle to safe levels of radioactivity. This new book explores the issues pertaining, either directly or indirectly, to nuclear waste disposal.

Waste Forms Technology and Performance

Waste Forms Technology and Performance PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309187338
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 308

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Book Description
The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) is responsible for cleaning up radioactive waste and environmental contamination resulting from five decades of nuclear weapons production and testing. A major focus of this program involves the retrieval, processing, and immobilization of waste into stable, solid waste forms for disposal. Waste Forms Technology and Performance, a report requested by DOE-EM, examines requirements for waste form technology and performance in the cleanup program. The report provides information to DOE-EM to support improvements in methods for processing waste and selecting and fabricating waste forms. Waste Forms Technology and Performance places particular emphasis on processing technologies for high-level radioactive waste, DOE's most expensive and arguably most difficult cleanup challenge. The report's key messages are presented in ten findings and one recommendation.

Research Opportunities for Managing the Department of Energy's Transuranic and Mixed Wastes

Research Opportunities for Managing the Department of Energy's Transuranic and Mixed Wastes PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309084717
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 130

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Book Description
About 155,000 cubic meters of waste contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous chemicals are stored at some 30 DOE sites, and another 450,000 cubic meters are buried. While DOE is making a concerted effort to properly dispose of this waste, the amount translates to a multi-decade effort that will require handling, characterizing, and shipping hundreds of thousands of waste containers at a total cost of billions of dollars. This report describes basic scientific research that can lead to new technologies for performing these tasks more safely and cost effectively.

Radioactive Waste Management

Radioactive Waste Management PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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An End State Methodology for Identifying Technology Needs for Environmental Management, with an Example from the Hanford Site Tanks

An End State Methodology for Identifying Technology Needs for Environmental Management, with an Example from the Hanford Site Tanks PDF Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309061830
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 105

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Book Description
A major issue in the cleanup of this country's nuclear weapons complex is how to dispose of the radioactive waste resulting primarily from the chemical processing operations for the recovery of plutonium and other defense strategic nuclear materials. The wastes are stored in hundreds of large underground tanks at four U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States. The tanks contain hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of radioactive and hazardous waste. Most of it is high-level waste (HLW), some of it is transuranic (TRU) or low- level waste (LLW), and essentially all containing significant amounts of chemicals deemed hazardous. Of the 278 tanks involved, about 70 are known or assumed to have leaked some of their contents to the environment. The remediation of the tanks and their contents requires the development of new technologies to enable cleanup and minimize costs while meeting various health, safety, and environmental objectives. While DOE has a process based on stakeholder participation for screening and formulating technology needs, it lacks transparency (in terms of being apparent to all concerned decision makers and other interested parties) and a systematic basis (in terms of identifying end states for the contaminants and developing pathways to these states from the present conditions). An End State Methodology for Identifying Technology Needs for Environmental Management, with an Example from the Hanford Site Tanks describes an approach for identifying technology development needs that is both systematic and transparent to enhance the cleanup and remediation of the tank contents and their sites. The authoring committee believes that the recommended end state based approach can be applied to DOE waste management in general, not just to waste in tanks. The approach is illustrated through an example based on the tanks at the DOE Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, the location of some 60 percent by volume of the tank waste residues.

Environmental Treatment Technologies for Municipal, Industrial and Medical Wastes

Environmental Treatment Technologies for Municipal, Industrial and Medical Wastes PDF Author: Subijoy Dutta
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1000428370
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 288

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Book Description
Environmental Treatment Technologies for Municipal, Industrial and Medical Wastes will provide the reader with a simple and clear path to analyze the full range of options to manage/treat any solid, hazardous, or medical waste problems/issues at hand. This book aims to disseminate information on available remediation treatment technologies to developing and developed countries. It also includes adequate information on all available treatment technologies for different types and categories of waste (hazardous, non-hazardous municipal solid waste, and medical waste). The technologies are grouped into the following categories: Containment technology; Soil washing; Thermal treatment; Vapor extraction; Bioremediation including Phytoremediation; Plasma/Incineration; Other Physical/Chemical treatments. It enlightens the effect of emissions during remediation activities on climate change and suggests measures to identify and control such emissions. It also covers the application of remote sensing technologies with examples and the impending issues of proper disinfection and disposal of COVID-19 related waste pertaining to the current pandemic. It is intended for almost anyone — ranging from college students and early career professionals interested in environmental pollution control, to graduate students, researchers and experienced professionals. This book will: cover several recent developments on various treatment technologies, including in situ applications and their emission/migration control methods including remote sensing technologies; deal with municipal solid waste, their treatment/disposal methods, recycling, and reuse in addition to the hazardous and medical waste management program; assist civil/environmental engineering students and local community organizations in evaluating the impact of an industry and its associated waste produced on-site; and cover how best to treat/manage the waste to arrive at a safe operation without impacting human health and the local environment.

Nuclear waste further actions needed to increase the use of innovative cleanup technologies : report to congressional committees

Nuclear waste further actions needed to increase the use of innovative cleanup technologies : report to congressional committees PDF Author:
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
ISBN: 142897668X
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :

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