Radioactive Waste Confinement

Science
Radioactive Waste Confinement PDF Author: S. Norris
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1786202735
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 366

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Book Description
It is internationally accepted that the safest and most sustainable option for managing radioactive waste is geological disposal, utilizing both engineering and geology to isolate the waste and contain the radioactivity. This Special Publication contains 25 scientific studies presented at the 6th conference on ‘Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement’ held in Brussels, Belgium in 2015. The conference and this resulting volume cover many of the aspects of clay characterization and behaviour considered at various temporal and spatial scales relevant to the confinement of radionuclides in clay, from basic phenomenological process descriptions to the global understanding of performance and safety at repository and geological scales. The papers in this volume consider research into argillaceous media under the following topic areas: large-scale geological characterization; general strategy for clay-based disposal systems; geomechanics; mass transfer; bentonite evolution and gas transfer. The collection of different topics presented in this Special Publication demonstrates the diversity of geological repository research.

Radioactive Waste Confinement

Radioactive Waste Confinement PDF Author: S. Norris
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1786202735
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 366

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Book Description
It is internationally accepted that the safest and most sustainable option for managing radioactive waste is geological disposal, utilizing both engineering and geology to isolate the waste and contain the radioactivity. This Special Publication contains 25 scientific studies presented at the 6th conference on ‘Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement’ held in Brussels, Belgium in 2015. The conference and this resulting volume cover many of the aspects of clay characterization and behaviour considered at various temporal and spatial scales relevant to the confinement of radionuclides in clay, from basic phenomenological process descriptions to the global understanding of performance and safety at repository and geological scales. The papers in this volume consider research into argillaceous media under the following topic areas: large-scale geological characterization; general strategy for clay-based disposal systems; geomechanics; mass transfer; bentonite evolution and gas transfer. The collection of different topics presented in this Special Publication demonstrates the diversity of geological repository research.

Multiple Roles of Clays in Radioactive Waste Confinement

Multiple Roles of Clays in Radioactive Waste Confinement PDF Author: S. Norris
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1786204045
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 364

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Book Description
This Special Publication highlights the importance of clays and clayey material, and their multiple roles, in many national geological disposal facilities for higher activity radioactive wastes. Clays can be both the disposal facility host rock and part of its intrinsic engineered barriers, and may be present in the surrounding geological environment. Clays possess various characteristics that make them high-quality barriers to the migration of radionuclides and chemical contaminants, e.g. very little water movement, diffusive transport, retention capacity, self-sealing capacity, stability over millions of years, homogeneity and lateral continuity.

Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement

Clays in Natural and Engineered Barriers for Radioactive Waste Confinement PDF Author: S. Norris
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 186239654X
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 618

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Book Description
This Special Publication contains 43 scientific studies presented at the 5th conference on ‘Clays in natural and engineered barriers for radioactive waste confinement’ held in Montpellier, France in 2012. The conference and this resulting volume cover all the aspects of clay characterization and behaviour considered at various temporal and spatial scales relevant to the confinement of radionuclides in clay, from basic phenomenological process descriptions to the global understanding of performance and safety at repository and geological scales. Special emphasis has been given to the modelling of processes occurring at the mineralogical level within the clay barriers. The papers in this Special Publication consider research into argillaceous media under the following topic areas: large-scale geological characterization; clay-based concept/large-scale experiments; hydrodynamical modelling; geochemistry; geomechanics; mass transfer/gas transfer; mass transfer mechanisms. The collection of different topics presented in this Special Publication demonstrates the diversity of geological repository research.

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities

Nuclear Waste Cleanup Technologies and Opportunities PDF Author: Robert Noyes
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815518455
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 471

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Book Description
One of the largest, most complicated and expensive environmental problems in the United States is the cleanup of nuclear wastes. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has approximately 4,000 contaminated sites covering tens of thousands of acres and replete with contaminated hazardous or radioactive waste, soil, or structures. In addition to high-level waste, it has more than 250,000 cubic meters of transuranic waste and millions of cubic meters of low-level radio-active waste. In addition, DOE is responsible for thousands of facilities awaiting decontamination, decommissioning, and dismantling. DOE and its predecessors have been involved in the management of radioactive wastes since 1943, when such wastes were first generated in significant quantities as by-products of nuclear weapons production. Waste connected with DOE's nuclear weapons complex has been accumulating as a result of various operations spanning over five decades. The cost estimates for nuclear waste cleanup in the United States have been rapidly rising. It has recently been estimated to be in a range from $200 to $350 billion. Costs could vary considerably based on future philosophies as to whether to isolate certain sites (the ""iron fence"" philosophy), or clean them up to a pristine condition (the ""greenfields"" philosophy). Funding will also be based on Congressional action that may reduce environmental cleanup, based on budget considerations.

Radioactive Waste Management

Radioactive Waste Management PDF Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Category : Radioactive waste disposal
Languages : en
Pages :

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Gas Generation and Migration in Deep Geological Radioactive Waste Repositories

Gas Generation and Migration in Deep Geological Radioactive Waste Repositories PDF Author: R.P. Shaw
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 1862397228
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 260

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Book Description
Understanding the behaviour of gases in the context of radioactive waste disposal is a fundamental requirement in developing a safety case for the disposal of radioactive waste. Of particular importance are the long-term performance of bentonite buffers and cement-based backfill materials that may be used to encapsulate and surround the waste in a repository, and the behaviour of plastic clays, indurated mudrocks and crystalline formations that may be the host rocks for a repository. The EC Euratom programme funded project, FORGE, has provided new insights into the processes and mechanisms governing gas generation and migration with the aim of reducing uncertainty. This volume brings together papers on aspects of this topic arising from both the FORGE project and work undertaken elsewhere. This has been achieved by the acquisition of new experimental data coupled with modelling, through a series of laboratory and field-scale experiments performed at a number of underground research laboratories throughout Europe.

Nuclear Waste Research

Nuclear Waste Research PDF Author: Arnold P. Lattefer
Publisher: Nova Publishers
ISBN: 9781604561845
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 284

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Book Description
Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. They are sometimes the products of a nuclear processes, such as nuclear fission. However, other industries not directly connected to the nuclear industry can produce large quantities of radioactive waste. For instance, over the past 20 years it is estimated that just the oil-producing endeavours of the US have accumulated 8 million tons of radioactive wastes. The majority of radioactive waste is "low-level waste", meaning it has low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume. This type of waste often consists of used protective clothing, which is only slightly contaminated but still dangerous in case of radioactive contamination of a human body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection. The issue of disposal methods for nuclear waste was one of the most pressing current problems the international nuclear industry faced when trying to establish a long term energy production plan, yet there was hope it could be safely solved. In the U.S., the DOE acknowledged much progress in addressing the waste problems of the industry, and successful remediation of some contaminated sites, yet also major uncertainties and sometimes complications and setbacks in handling the issue properly, cost effectively, and in the projected time frame. In other countries with lower ability or will to maintain environmental integrity the issue would be more problematic. This new book presents the latest research in the field.

Containment of High-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Solid Wastes with Clay Barriers

Containment of High-Level Radioactive and Hazardous Solid Wastes with Clay Barriers PDF Author: Raymond N. Yong
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482266245
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 498

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Book Description
One of the principal objections to or problems with the use of nuclear fuel is that a proven method for safe disposal of spent nuclear fuel has yet to be established. The central focus of most schemes underway to dispose of these high-level radioactive wastes relies on clay-based buffers and barriers to isolate spent fuel canisters in borehole

Geological Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste

Geological Storage of Highly Radioactive Waste PDF Author: Roland Pusch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540773337
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 379

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Book Description
The book assesses current ideas for long-term disposal of highly radioactive waste. Different types of rock are discussed and assessed with respect to practical difficulties in constructing a repository, and the efficiency of isolating radioactive waste.

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal

High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal PDF Author: R. Pusch
Publisher: WIT Press
ISBN: 1845645669
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 321

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Book Description
High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) Disposal, A Global Challenge presents the most recent information on proposed methods of disposal for the most dangerous radioactive waste and for assessing their function from short- and long-term perspectives. It discusses new aspects of the disposal of such waste, especially HLW. The book is unique in the literature in making it clear that, due to tectonics and long-term changes in rock structure, rock can serve only as a ""mechanical support to the chemical apparatus"" and that effective containment of hazardous elements can only be managed by properly designed and manufactured containers (""canisters""). This contradicts the common belief that the rock itself is an effective barrier to the transport of contaminants like radionuclides. The importance of the longevity of the containers becomes clear and requires a consideration of all degrading physical/chemical processes, which occupies a considerable part of the book. The book is thus an important contribution to the literature because it proposes design principles that can make repositories for HLW radioactive waste much safer.