The Humans Who Went Extinct

The Humans Who Went Extinct PDF Author: Clive Finlayson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199239193
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 273

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Book Description
Originally published in hardcover: Oxford; New York: Oxford Universtiy Press, 2009.

The Neanderthals

The Neanderthals PDF Author: Charles River Charles River Editors
Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
ISBN: 9781987534177
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 98

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Book Description
*Includes pictures *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading In popular culture, the term Neanderthal is used as a colloquial insult for a degenerate or someone perceived as stupid. This seems to have been the case even from the first recognition of the Neanderthals as a species. The first Neanderthal fossil discovery was that of a child's skull in Belgium in 1829, but it was badly damaged. Another would be discovered in 1856 in a limestone mine of the Neanderthal region of what is present-day Germany, and a skull with differing distinct traits (indicating a different species than the Neanderthals) would be discovered just over a decade later in southwestern France. The latter specimen would come to be recognized as an example of the species Homo Sapiens, and these anatomically modern humans arrived in Europe between 45,000 and 43,000 years ago, around the time the Neanderthals are believed to started going extinct. The Neanderthals are a member of the genus Homo just like Homo sapiens and share roughly 99.7% of their DNA with modern humans (Reynolds and Gallagher 2012). Both species even lived briefly during the same time in Eurasia. However, the Neanderthals evolved separately in Europe, away from modern humans, who evolved in Africa. Physically, the Neanderthal skeleton was much more robust, suggesting that there was more room for muscle attachment. However, while Neanderthals were stronger than modern humans, the average height of the Neanderthal male was shorter, standing at only about 5'5 tall. Other physical characteristics that set the Neanderthals apart from modern humans were certain skull traits. The skull in general was low and elongated, featuring a sloping forehead with an occipital bun (a bone projection at the back of the skull), whereas modern humans have a more vertical forehead with no occipital bun. The cranial capacity of the Neanderthal skull was also greater than the modern human at 1,500-1,740 cc, and it lacked a chin and had more circular eye orbits, in contrast to Homo sapiens, which have a chin and tend to feature more rectangular eye orbits (Wolpoff 1999). Despite these differences, the Neanderthals may have been recognizable enough to interact with Homo sapiens or even blend in with Homo sapiens for the thousands of years they lived together in Europe. The Neanderthals lived in Europe and Asia for nearly 200,000 years and thrived in these regions, but they went extinct between 40,000 and 30,000 years ago, around the same time that modern humans began arriving in Europe. This has prompted much speculation as to the nature of the interactions between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens, especially since some researchers believe they interacted with each other for over 5,000 years before the Neanderthals began going extinct at different times across Europe. One hypothesis is that Homo sapiens displaced the Neanderthals and were better suited for the environment, and it is obviously possible if not likely that these two groups had become competitors for food and other resources, with Homo sapiens being more successful in the end. If such close interactions were taking place, there is also a possibility that the relatively new-to-Europe Homo sapiens brought pathogens from Africa with them that were unknown to the Neanderthal's immune system. A more recent example of this type of resulting interaction is the European expansion into the Americas, which brought diseases like smallpox that the natives of America had never experienced before, especially diseases resulting from the domestication of animals. It is possible that the domestication of the dog by Homo sapiens may have contributed in spreading foreign diseases among the Neanderthals. This book looks at the evolution of the Neanderthals and examines the theories regarding how they went extinct.

Extinct Humans

Extinct Humans PDF Author: Head of the Anthropology Department Ian Tattersall
Publisher: Westview Press
ISBN:
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
Challenging prevailing notions of the evolution of humans, this fascinating study of a controversial topic posits that the human evolutionary tree actually contained many branches, and that some of these groups may have exterminated others. 10,000 first printing.

The Smart Neanderthal

The Smart Neanderthal PDF Author: Clive Finlayson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192518119
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 287

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Book Description
Since the late 1980s the dominant theory of human origins has been that a 'cognitive revolution' (C.50,000 years ago) led to the advent of our species, Homo sapiens. As a result of this revolution our species spread and eventually replaced all existing archaic Homo species, ultimately leading to the superiority of modern humans. Or so we thought. As Clive Finlayson explains, the latest advances in genetics prove that there was significant interbreeding between Modern Humans and the Neanderthals. All non-Africans today carry some Neanderthal genes. We have also discovered aspects of Neanderthal behaviour that indicate that they were not cognitively inferior to modern humans, as we once thought, and in fact had their own rituals and art. Finlayson, who is at the forefront of this research, recounts the discoveries of his team, providing evidence that Neanderthals caught birds of prey, and used their feathers for symbolic purposes. There is also evidence that Neanderthals practised other forms of art, as the recently discovered engravings in Gorham's Cave Gibraltar indicate. Linking all the recent evidence, The Smart Neanderthal casts a new light on the Neanderthals and the 'Cognitive Revolution'. Finlayson argues that there was no revolution and, instead, modern behaviour arose gradually and independently among different populations of Modern Humans and Neanderthals. Some practices were even adopted by Modern Humans from the Neanderthals. Finlayson overturns classic narratives of human origins, and raises important questions about who we really are.

The Improbable Primate

The Improbable Primate PDF Author: Clive Finlayson
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191503770
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
Taking an ecological approach to our evolution, Clive Finlayson considers the origins of modern humans within the context of a drying climate and changing landscapes. Finlayson argues that environmental change, particularly availability of water, played a critical role in shaping the direction of human evolution, contributing to our spread and success. He argues that our ancestors carved a niche for themselves by leaving the forest and forcing their way into a long-established community of carnivores in a tropical savannah as climate changes opened up the landscape. They took their chance at high noon, when most other predators were asleep. Adapting to this new lifestyle by shedding their hair and developing an active sweating system to keep cool, being close to fresh water was vital. As the climate dried, our ancestors, already bipedal, became taller and slimmer, more adept at travelling farther in search of water. The challenges of seeking water in a drying landscape moulded the minds and bodies of early humans, and directed their migrations and eventual settlements. In this fresh and provocative view of a seven-million-year evolutionary journey, Finlayson demonstrates the radical implications for the interpretation of fossils and technologies and shows that understanding humans within an ecological context provides insights into the emergence and spread of Homo sapiens sapiens worldwide.

The Last Human

The Last Human PDF Author: Esteban E. Sarmiento
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 9780300100471
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 256

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Book Description
Creates three-dimensional scientific reconstructions for twenty-two species of extinct humans, providing information for each one on its emergence, chronology, geographic range, classification, physiology, environment, habitat, cultural achievements, coex

The Human Behavior

The Human Behavior PDF Author: Valentin Matcas
Publisher: Valentin Leonard Matcas
ISBN:
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 140

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Book Description
How can you control yourself and be successful in all situations throughout life? You simply learn everything about yourself, and about life. Your behavior represents the summation of your lifelong activity. How can you improve and control your behavior, in order to be successful and understand the world? In what interests you, the world is structured into environments, while you behave differently throughout them, in order to match them with your most adequate behavior. You have your social, natural, and cognitive environments among others, we consider them throughout the book, while studying the variety of behaviors that you undergo throughout them. We perform this study as a comprehensive model, from all perspectives. Your behavior is very complex, and this is your chance to understand it entirely. You will understand the human behavior from all perspectives, by integrating it in all relevant topics of influence. Therefore, along with the human behavior, you will understand your needs, your reasoning, and your development, along with the influence coming from your inner self, family, society, Media and Entertainment, Education, ideologies, and much more. Throughout this book, you learn everything about the human behavior, everything necessary to help you control yourself, understand others, and develop to higher levels, along with everything necessary for you to help and educate others to behave well, and to develop to higher levels.

The End of Humanity

The End of Humanity PDF Author: Paragon Publishing
Publisher: Independently Published
ISBN:
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 118

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Book Description
What comes to your mind when you think of a catastrophe? Earthquakes? Diseases? Death? Humans have witnessed numerous incidents that threatened mass extinction throughout history, but we survived and evolved into a completely different community. Some events almost wiped-out human civilization! Some humans survived these catastrophic events despite fatal situations, either due to migration or by pure luck. In this book, you will learn about ten fatal events that almost made humans extinct. From as old as 195,000 years to as recent as 35 years ago, this book covers a basic timeline of lesser-known events responsible for almost making humans extinct. Some of these events are so mind-boggling that you read and think for a second what people at that time could have done to escape such a massive catastrophe. Delving into these events also makes us question a lot of things. How did the event take place? Who was responsible? What happened, and what could have happened? Was there a way to stop it? Is it possible for such events to occur again? The answers to these questions go beyond our thinking, and that's what we are going to explore in this book. The book also reflects on some of the situations we face in the modern world that connect us to the extinction events on a personal level. It may not be the answer to your every curiosity, but it indeed gives the thought of "anything can happen" a fresh perspective.

After Extinction

After Extinction PDF Author: Richard Grusin
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
ISBN: 1452956324
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 272

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Book Description
A multidisciplinary exploration of extinction and what comes next What comes after extinction? Including both prominent and unusual voices in current debates around the Anthropocene, this collection asks authors from diverse backgrounds to address this question. After Extinction looks at the future of humans and nonhumans, exploring how the scale of risk posed by extinction has changed in light of the accelerated networks of the twenty-first century. The collection considers extinction as a cultural, artistic, and media event as well as a biological one. The authors treat extinction in relation to a variety of topics, including disability, human exceptionalism, science-fiction understandings of time and posthistory, photography, the contemporary ecological crisis, the California Condor, systemic racism, Native American traditions, and capitalism. From discussions of the anticipated sixth extinction to the status of writing, theory, and philosophy after extinction, the contributions of this volume are insightful and innovative, timely and thought provoking. Contributors: Daryl Baldwin, Miami U; Claire Colebrook, Pennsylvania State U; William E. Connolly, Johns Hopkins U; Ashley Dawson, CUNY Graduate Center; Joseph Masco, U of Chicago; Nicholas Mirzoeff, New York U; Margaret Noodin, U of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; Jussi Parikka, U of Southampton; Bernard C. Perley, U of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; Cary Wolfe, Rice U; Joanna Zylinska, Goldsmiths, U of London.

The Human Journey

The Human Journey PDF Author: Kevin Reilly
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
ISBN: 144221354X
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 472

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Book Description
The Human Journey offers a truly concise yet satisfyingly full history of the world from ancient times to the present. The book’s scope, as the title implies, is the whole story of humanity, in planetary context. Its themes include not only the great questions of the humanities—nature versus nurture, the history and meaning of human variation, the sources of wealth and causes of revolution—but also the major transformations in human history: agriculture, cities, iron, writing, universal religions, global trade, industrialization, popular government, justice, and equality. In each conceptually rich chapter, leading historian Kevin Reilly concentrates on a single important period and theme, sustaining a focused narrative and analytical perspective. Chapter 2, for example, discusses the significance of bronze-age urbanization and the advent of the Iron Age. Chapter 3 examines the meaning and significance of the age of “classical” civilizations. Chapter 4 explains the spread of universal religions and new technologies in the postclassical age of Eurasian integration. But these examples also reveal a range of approaches to world history. The first chapter is an example of current “Big History,” the second of history as technological transformations, the third of comparative history, the fourth the history of connections that dominates, and thus narrows, so many texts. Free of either a confined, limiting focus or a mandatory laundry list of topics, this book begins with our most important questions and searches all of our past for answers. Well-grounded in the latest scholarship, this is not a fill-in-the-blanks text, but world history in a grand humanistic tradition.